Build a log cabin

It’s an perfect option and there are a lot of styles which you can pick from and this is what produces the choice such an intriguing one. When you purchase at wholesale, you have the ability to spend much less. This option is most acceptable for anyone who’s prepared to purchase their logs at a cost that’s fair. It’s also perfect for anybody who wishes to build many homes at exactly the exact same time.

You can purchase and then send the only things which you need for the job at hand.

Building for less

Building can be an experience that’s not only rewarding, but also enjoyable as well for your whole family. If you don’t plan, it may also prove to be a nightmare. When you purchase a kit that has everything contained it can actually cost you more than once you get the materials on your own.

To avoid this additional expense, it’s reasonable to purchase the logs at wholesale and save some cash. You can have these sent to you and taken right to the website.

There are several providers who can meet your buying needs at the lowest prices. As you make the purchase, it’s important to make certain you can have the ability to customize the choice and fulfill the specifications that you actually need.

Professional help

The best suppliers need to have a excellent reputation in the business. Prior to purchasing, it’s important to make sure they’re well known and their products are of the finest quality. It’s always important to look at the prices in order to have the ability to compare the sort of savings you will have the ability to make.

Such structures are excellent for home offices, and fantastic garden buildings. It’s important to make certain they are spacious and with a calm atmosphere. The heavy materials utilized help to make certain they can be used throughout the year. Therefore, the thickness is among the most significant things that should be considered.

The most important factor when making the purchase is understanding just what you require. It’s very important to create your specifications quite clear and include all of the features which you deem to be essential for you.

Building a fire

Campfire, Fireplace, Fire, Burn, Flame

A fire is required in just about any backpacking, hiking, or camping survival scenario. It can look like a simple task building a campfire, but the majority of men and women struggle building one. Moreover, it may be more challenging to construct a campfire if you run out of matches. Whether it’s a campfire for cooking or for providing heat during cold nights, it’s vital you know the right way to construct a campfire, with or without games, when camping.

Nothing beats the taste and appeal of foods cooked over the campfire. The freedom to cook over an open fire now is a privilege due to limited regions of camping and declining firewood stocks in several campgrounds. This calls for extreme caution and respect.

Fire location

Look closely at the floor where the fire will be lit before beginning to prepare the fire area. It’s recommended you build the fire over a stone. In case it’s impossible on a stone, you need to be sure that the foundation of the flame is on a bare mineral soil. When the time comes to put out the fire, a simple bucket of water will not do-have a fire pit mechanism set up.

Wood

Campfire for cooking should be clean, and burning hot. Getting green timber from trees will not bear fruit because of its fire burn badly and create unnecessary smoke. Call ahead to find out what is available as many people campgrounds supply firewood.

Wind Shelter

Strong winds are poisonous in cooking. And may cause sparks getting away, which may spark forest fire. Strong winds reduce firewood fast and offer much less cooking time. Thus, a wind shelter is critical to daunt important winds from interfering with your own cooking.

Tinder

These are little materials that ignite easily and fast using a spark. The material have to be dry and finely shredded as you can.

Kindling

Medium-sized substances that could catch fire from tinder, quickly. Kindling material has to be dry, small items to be able to catch fire.

When building a campfire for cooking, the purpose is to have the timber turn to coal in precisely the exact same time. This would create an even flame with no flames going up to the meals or blackening your cookware. This also builds the longest cooking time in the flame produced.

Site preparation

Make sure no tree branches hang round the website. Use green logs or massive rocks to produce a U-shaped perimeter around the fire area. If using logs to the perimeter, have them down from time to time. Create some kind of chimney; you may have a big flat rock put at the back of the fire area, to help direct the smoke up and away.

Laying the Kindling

Distribute the fire place with tinder. Put kindling material over the tinder in layers, interchanging management with every layer. Do not put kindling stuff the”teepee style”. Cover the entire fire place with the kindling heap.

The wood needs to have the identical dimensions, as far as possible. It is possible to use wood or wood branches. When flames begin to die down leaving largely white coals, remove the white coals by shoving them in the lower level in the front and rear end in a higher level. This would level the rest of the coal to your own liking. Set rocks or wetted green logs around the fire for placing the grill or toaster for cooking.

Even though the tepee procedure is much more popular, the log cabin procedure is the best for cooking.

Log Cabin Method

You build a little tepee of tinder and kindling at the middle of your fireplace. The distance between logs allows for air flow from bottom to top of the fireplace. Build the timber logs as big as you would like. Light the kindling in the center. You may blow into the tepee in the event the flame struggles to set ablaze or dig little air holes beneath the bottom logs. Keep the fire in a fair and safe size.

The Platform

This is accomplished by creating a solid log cabin, with the biggest logs in the bottom and something about the size of your wrist on top. The platform is for all those who want a wonderful bed of coals to cook . You don’t need to await it all to burn down before you begin cooking.

The platform procedure is called”upside down” fire when larger logs are used. It’s maintained for its ability to burn for quite a very long time, unattended. Don’t forget to place the largest logs on the bottom and scale to smaller stuff on top. Light fire on top. As you practice, you will figure out the perfect size of wood required to make fire that burns by itself, all night.

It can be slightly difficult learning how to make campfire using platform procedure. The trick is to produce a large enough teepee on top in order to make a bed of coals which will be effective at burning through the first layer, igniting it, building a bigger bed of coals etc..

The Tepee Method

Then put it in the center of the fire area. Leave an opening at the teepee for light the pile of tinder in the bottom with games. The fire spreads to the kindling and logs once the tinder lights; providing you a excellent campfire. You may blow softly on the flame to have it spread into the kindling and wood. When the blaze is moving, continue adding logs from the tepee pattern.

Conclusion

There are a whole lot of approaches to construct campfire, but the important thing here is to practice, find the method that suits your cooking and you’re comfortable with. You can even customize the flame to your special needs on a particular night, Practicing the hard way, with Ferro pole, knife and tinder, and leaning to prepare your wood with limited resources helps develop vital skills for survival.

Tarantulas

Tarantula, Brachypelma

To lots of people, tarantulas are disgustingly revolting since they’re hairy, stocky, and fearsome-looking. . .But to other individuals, they’re TERRIFIC! Despite their reputations, most tarantulas are harmless to people and are popular in exotic pet trade. There are no true tarantulas which are proven to have a bite that’s deadly to humans.

. .Yup, that is what I said!

Tarantulas range in colours from brown, black and gray (very drab) to excitingly colorful kinds of metallic blue, white and black, bright orange, and cobalt blue.

Tarantulas are very often hairy and rather large. They don’t spin webs, unless they reside in a tube, because they hunt their prey on the floor. If they live in a tube, they’re known to lineup that tube with internet to catch drifting prey. They use their speed and ambush capabilities to capture different spiders and insects. Larger varieties are even know to capture lizards, birds and rodents.

My Story: When I lived in Australia back in 1994-95, I was on the phone with my mum in Canada as I had been wandering around the house. All of a sudden, I let out a massive scream and dropped the phone. I return to pick up the telephone to explain to her that I simply walked to the restroom. At the bottom of the tub was a big, hairy spider about the size of a saucer (like it’s legs), and it was making a sound and leaping about 1 1/2 feet into the air.

I was so petrified, I did not know what to do. My mom was scared on the opposite end of the telephone as I got a clear plastic container and hauled some holes into the base of it, and covered it up in the tub until my roommates came home, who were native Aussies…

They believed it was so funny I was so scared, but I had never seen one before, being from Canada! They safely let it out for me. Not my cup of tea, but a lot of people loves these little guys! I wish I’d have considered taking a photograph of it!

Scientific Classification:

Tarantulas rely upon their thick exoskeleton for support and protection. The body length of tarantulas vary from 2.5 – 10 cm (1-4 inches), with 8-30 cm (3 to 12 inch) leg spans (their size when adding their legs).

Conservation Status: For the most part, tarantulas do well. However, the Mexican red-knee tarantula is on the Critically Endangered list based on WWF. This is because urbanization, increasing tourism, and manipulation of wildlife are high-intensity risks to the area, as are road building, perennial plantations, and ranching.

Why are Flamingos pink?

Flamingo, Zoo, Water

With”That is just the way it is”. Elephants are gray, canaries are yellow, so why should not flamingos be pink? Well, there really is an excellent reason.

To begin with, young flamingos aren’t pink, they are grey (such as an elephant) for about the first few decades of life, and they turn pink. Not all adult flamingos are pink though most are either pink or a color of red near pink. Of the five species of flamingo in life, the Caribbean flamingo, is truly a very bright red red. Generally speaking, adult flamingos are red, pink, or someplace in between.

Genetics would appear to be the obvious answer, but it’s not the best one. There is the old expression”You are what you eat”, and flamingos are pink due to their diet. If you put a flamingo in captivity, and give it something to eat rather than its regular diet, the bird will so begin to lose its coloring, and become more white than pink.

A flamingo’s diet is high in beta-carotene, the exact same substance we consume when we eat carrots. Their normal habitat is in shallow lakes and wetlands, where fish have a tendency to flourish. When you think of it, somebody who likes carrots and eats a few a day can choose a slightly orange color for their complexion. That really happens, and isn’t unhealthy although it may seem so.

, you can honestly say it is because they eat shrimp. You can go into some detail with the cartenoid piece if you desire, but for our purposes, just saying fish should suffice. Then if you are pressed, you can cite cartenoids and beta-carotine, like that’s something everybody should already know!

If the individual still does not believe your response, you can let them know that flamingos also fly and march, two more details about flamingos that are accurate. We are so used to seeing flamingos from the zoo only standing on one leg (it is the most comfortable way for them to stand), or as lawn ornaments in the area, we forget they’re quite capable of flight, and actually fly from one location to another in enormous flocks. Insofar as marching is concerned, should you find a group (really a colony) of flamingos on the floor, and observe them over a time period, you will finally see them march.

Eat more pasta

Close-Up, Pasta, Pesto, Italian

It is just as versatile as it’s cheap and it can be served with a number of different sauces. As such, it’s gotten a negative reputation among the weight loss community. Following, however, are several incredible reasons why this delicious dish should be made a routine part of your diet.
For busy people, this is one of the most portable foods on the market. As an example, if you regularly pack your lunch for work, you can easily store this in a coverage dish and rewarm it in lunch time. This will offer a hearty, filling meal which will give you a great deal of energy and at a minimal price. Bringing leftover pasta to work is infinitely less expensive than paying to have someone at a regional deli create your lunch for you.
Another major benefit which you could benefit from this food is the capacity to make vegetables tasty. As an example, if you have a hard time getting your youngsters to consume a great deal of produce, this is a excellent way to sneak a vibrant selection of nutrient-dense veggies into your child’s meals. Your little one will hardly know that you have diced up peppers, zucchini, tomatoes and olives into this dish.
There isn’t any way to overstate the fact that pasta is incredibly cheap. That is why it is a regular staple in many households. Moreover, one small box can go a very long way. For families that are continuously trying to eke it out, this is the best food for ensuring that everyone is able to sate themselves at dinnertime, every time.
Bodybuilders load on this carbohydrate with good reason. It quickly breaks down to a lot of usable energy. Whether you’re currently working in the gym to build up your mass or simply need more fuel to get you through the day, start munching on this simple food at lunch time and you’ll find that you have more stamina and better focus for hours and hours.
People should be aware they don’t always have to cook this dish at home in order to recognize its many impressive benefits. You can enjoy how simple, portable, delicious and filling pasta is by simply taking your family out to a restaurant that serves Italian food. Best of all, you can take any leftovers that you must lunch with you the next day, so that you can enjoy the succulent and perfectly blended flavors of the popular cuisine all over again.

4 Essentials You Carry When Going For a Beach Holiday

Fashion, Sun Hat, Sun Protection
Are you going to attend a beach party this year and you’re thinking what you can carry? I can help you to solve all the issues. Choosing a holiday near the beachfront is something distinct from normal vacation destinations. By the term”beach”, you are able to visualize blue water; lovely girls in swim wear and water sports.
Here are a few of the essentials which you can carry in your luggage when you are likely to enjoy with your close friends at the seaside.
Swimwear-
It’s one of the important items that you have to carry in the travel bag. Beach wear is available in various designs and sizes depending upon on the body shape. Bikinis are the common kind of swim wear available in a variety of colors and styles. You can take one of those who suit your figure. Women that are little bulky can definitely take the one-piece suits.
Colours and Surf Wear-
The glasses are very important to carry when you’re going at a beach front. The cat-eye glasses are very common in nowadays. If you really want to shield your eyes, better to choose oversized goggles or an eye wear that may protect your eyes. When packing your bags, never forget to set a pair of glasses inside.
Surfing is one important game which you can try to do at the beach, but it’s impossible to wear normal pants when you are surfing. You may carry surf wear or purchase from the shore front stores. It’s better to take the garments from a reputed brand.
3.
Among the worst things about the beach vacation is the tanning. The sunrays are directly falling on the skin, increasing the rate of melanin production. You may carry sunscreen lotions of the good brand that can reduce flea and maintain your skin in good shape.
Umbrella and Chairs-
Umbrellas and chairs are extremely common at the beach. It is not possible to carry the chairs in the travel bag. You can purchase one from the shore front shop to enjoy the sun beams. The umbrella is an essential thing for seaside holidays.
These are a few of the items which you can very important at the seafront events and parties. If you want to keep your travel bag light in weight, purchase these items from the stores in the beach front.

Lawn Care

Grass, Lawn, Background, Grassy, Green

When it comes to lawn maintenance, homeowners sometimes fall for myths surrounding them. Despite the availability of information from blogs, magazines and even from companies specializing in lawn care, people still cling to these myths which can negatively impact the quality of a lawn. Many of these myths might be well-meaning but studies indicate that these can hurt your lawn and following these do not provide any value.

What are these myths about lawn maintenance you should watch for?

  1. Contrary to the belief held by some people, there are several types of grasses, each with its own set of requirements when it comes to irrigation, mowing and maintenance. Taking into consideration these differences will allow you to take better care of your lawn and help you pick the suitable equipment.
  2. You might think that shaving a considerable amount off the leaf blades of the grass will translate to time savings and less effort. If you cut the grass too short, you may pay the price later on in the form of stressed grass that will not grow optimally.
  3. Bagging the clippings. Some property owners think that it is best to bag grass clippings after each mowing session. However, by doing this, you are missing some of the benefits that leaving grass clippings on the lawn can offer. Leaving grass clippings on the lawn helps return vital nutrients to the soil as they decompose. If you decide to bag grass clippings, set aside a portion of them for composting.
  4. Concentrate your attention on the grass. Another common myth about lawn care is that you should focus your time and effort on the grass. On the contrary, ample attention should also be given to the soil as it serves as the foundation for a healthy lawn. Be certain it’s tested regularly to let you pick the best fertilizer.
  5. As your lawn becomes blanketed in snow, you can take a rest from your typical lawn care tasks. However, you should take advantage of the time by keeping your tools and equipment. By way of example, you can look over your lawn mower and assess whether it needs sharper blades or missing components. Come spring time, you will be ready to go back to your regular lawn maintenance tasks.

Patio Furniture

Patio, Morning, Chairs, Outside, Table

It’s now of the year we start to pull our backyard furniture from storage, baffled by how it’s managed to fall to ruin in only a year! Now that the sun is shining and temperatures are climbing, it’s the best time to begin considering upgrading our garden furniture.

However big or small your outdoor area is, it’s inevitable you will be searching for someplace to sit this summer. Benches are the perfect way to create a focal point in your garden, including a particularly dramatic look when put under a tree or facing your lovely flower bed. There are a range of different designs available, with amorous metalwork and traditional wooden structures all feasible choices.

Garden furniture isn’t commonly associated with being the most comfy chairs in the world, because of the requirement for durability, however there are several ways to design your garden bench so as to improve this. Outdoor cushions and blankets can help add to the aesthetics but also result in a more relaxing and pleasant experience altogether!

The growth of waterproof textile designs has caused a wonderful gain in the amount of different styles and shapes available in the marketplace. It’s common to adhere to safer options when accessorising bits of furniture, with neutral and solid colors proving to be popular selections! In actuality, it’s a celebrated trend to attempt to incorporate various different patterns and colors to make an eye-catching and alternative appearance. Additionally it is a wonderful way to bring a little bit of your personality to the fore. Another valuable tip, if you’re uncertain of what path to take, is to use a combination of neutral and solid colored cushions along with a few patterned scatter cushions of your choice. This is a more conventional approach and will make any chair/bench/swing seem like it’s straight from an interior design magazine.

Most garden pieces are built to survive but with the British weather frequently proving unpredictable it might also be a smart move to put money into a tarpaulin cover, or something similar, to help protect your furniture throughout the harsher months of this year. This will eliminate the necessity to store your outdoor chairs, benches, tables etc. inside during fall and winter.

Choosing the right contracter

Porch, Front, House, Home, Exterior

Spring has finally come, with the chance for outdoor parties and parties – it is time to get a patio installer to expand your outdoor living space while enhancing your garden.

It is worth starting early… careful preparation will take some time as you might want to decide on products and designs. Great installers are often booked up in advance and will have to incorporate your new patio in their schedules.

If you have decided a terrace would be a welcome addition to your house, your toughest decision may be choosing the perfect contractor to deal with the project. While there are lots of options to select from, it’s imperative that you choose a builder that offers the ideal mix of products, service, and quality. By way of instance, you want to be certain that the patio installer you pick has a reputation for doing the job correctly. Other factors to consider when Choosing a contractor include:

Products – inquire what materials are offered for a terrace. A pro will offer concrete, brick, rock, and pavers. If you select pavers, ensure that your contractor buys them from a reputable manufacturer, as poor pavers will fade and frequently are less durable.

Warranties & Guarantees – Ask whether the contractor guarantee their work, and if there are warranties on the goods (usually pavers) talk about the specifics until you know them and have the warranty and warranty spelled out in writing.

Sites with Portfolios – Top experts have sites that help educate the general public about hardscaping issues like the advantages and disadvantages of different materials used for patios.

Professional Organizations & Profession Education – search for a contractor who belongs to professional organizations like New Jersey Landscape Contractors Association (NJLCA) that encourage professionalism, security, environmental protection, and education.

Local Knowledge – Many communities have particular codes and limitations for terrace additions-choose a contractor experienced in navigating these constraints and regulations to produce the type of terrace that meets your needs and wants.

When choosing a professional to lay your terrace, you need to have a practical approach prior to making your decision. Ask straightforward questions and try to find some simple support. Here are some helpful tips on what you need to ask before your dream garden project starts:

Get some different quotes for your project, checking they include all the services and products you’ll need. Ensure there are no hidden extras like soil removal. Suggestion: Ask how long the job will last.
Ask for a few recent references of finished patio setup and read their reviews that are online. A reputable contractor will be enthusiastic about displaying recent work. Expect to see photos and details of recent, similar function which you may visit to get a reference.
Ask questions like if the price of a dumpster and jointing sand is included?
Check whether the contractor has the proper liability insurance.
Ask for a final written quote from your favorite contractor.
A reputable patio installer won’t cut corners but work to the maximum standard to construct a patio that’s beautiful and will stay that way for years to come.
Starting with fundamental research and asking the correct questions will help make certain you opt for a trusted and reliable contractor.

A professional terrace installer in may recommend colours, complementary goods, suitable laying patterns and a lot more, so it’s worth investing in a reliable one – remember to ask to see their portfolios. The master terrace builder will subsequently enhance their customer’s dreams as they design their patio which matches their client’s desires.

The Magna Carta and its Ramifications today

Preamble, Constitution, Speech, Freedom, Usa

The Magna Carta, or Great Charter, is a charter drawn by English noblemen guaranteeing certain English rights and defining English civil and political liberties. It had been signed by seal of King John of England on June 15, 1215 in an effort to ensure the continued loyalty of the nobility. While Pope Innocent III nullified the arrangement 10 months later, the document was reissued with alterations in 1216, 1217 and 1225. In 1297, Edward I entered the Magna Carta into the statues of this realm, making it the first entry on the statute books. While the Magna Carta was originally supposed to protect only the rights of noblemen, it was eventually extended to commoners and served as the foundation for English Common Law.

The Magna Carta included 63 clauses that served to address the main problems affecting England during the reign of King John including inheritance; debts and the payment after death; the administration of justice; the levying of taxes; forests, riverbanks and river weirs; and freedom of trade and travel amongst others. While the Magna Carta was not originally numbered or split into separate clauses, a numbering system was provided by Sir William Blackstone, in 1759 in a published edition of the 1215 version of the Magna Carta.

The statute that had remained dormant for many years was revived by Sir Edward Coke in the seventeenth century. Coke touted the Magna Carta as authority for challenging the Stuart kings’ claims of royal prerogative and he translated the Magna Carta as an affirmation of the principles of individual liberties and as a declaration of English rights held since antiquity. The importance that Sir Edward Coke attributed to the Magna Carta was reflected in the legislation of the colonies and his interpretation resulted in the claim of the inviolability of an individual’s right to due process of law.

Englishmen who came to the American colonies believed they were entitled to the rights of Englishmen embodied in the Magna Carta and as defined in the English Common Law, and it was upon this framework that the colonists started to construct the laws of the land and maintain their liberty in the English Crown.

When framing their State Constitutions, nearly all the original colonies included a declaration of the fundamental rights and liberties of man. While the Constitution of 1789 embodied various declarations of the fundamental rights of men, it didn’t include a formal Bill of Rights, such as that included in the State Constitutions. Intense debate over the need for a declarative statement outlining the rights of taxpayers ensued. As a result, Articles three through twelve, known as the Bill of Rights, became the first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States.

The Bill of Rights, passed in 1789, and put in effect in 1791, secures the essential rights and liberties of the individual citizen and limits the government’s power in judicial proceedings. Many of these rights and liberties, as well as the concept of representative government, the notion of a supreme law, and the notion of judicial review descend from an eighteenth-century understanding of the Magna Carta.

Freedom of Religion:

The English concept of liberty of the church served as the foundation for our First Amendment guarantee of freedom of religion. The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States provides that”Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof…” Similarly, Clause 1 of the Magna Carta provides”That the English Church shall be free and shall have her whole rights and her liberties inviolable…” Clauses 62 and 63, which were omitted in the subsequent reissues of the Magna Carta, also reaffirm the freedom of the Church.

Due Process:

The idea of due process was expanded to include the right to bear arms (Second Amendment) and to not be subject to cruel and unusual punishment (Eighth Amendment).

Due process, derived from Clause 39 of the Magna Carta, deals with the administration of justice and the rights of individuals. Clause 39, which has never been rescinded, provides that”No freeman shall be seized, or imprisoned, or dispossessed, or outlawed, or in any way destroyed; nor will we condemn him, nor will we commit him to prison excepting by the legal judgment of his peers, or by the laws of the land.”

Clause 39 guarantees that the administration of justice shall be based on”the laws of this land.” While the concept of”law of the land” is not defined in the Magna Carta, it has over time come to mean the right to trial by a jury of one’s peers, the right to confront one’s accusers, and the right to appeal.

The term”due process of law” first replaced the stage”the law of the land” in 1354 in a statute restating the Magna Carta’s procedural claims. It’s this guarantee that is embodied in the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.

Article 1, Section 9 of the Constitution also includes a similar provision. It should also be noted that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1868, also comprises a due process clause.

The Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship to”all persons born or naturalized in the United States” and prohibit states from denying any person”life, liberty or property, without due process of law” or denying”any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” The provisions of the Fifth Amendment were introduced as a check upon the national government while those enunciated in the Fourteenth Amendment were directed towards the respective states in the Union. Taken together, however, the two amendments ensure that the person’s right to life, liberty and property remain inviolate vis a vis both the state and national government.

The concept of making sure that the individual’s right to life, liberty and property remained inviolate vis a vis government is further exemplified in the Ninth Amendment to the Constitution wherein it is stipulated that”the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” Clearly, the framers of the Constitution intended that the rights that they held prior to the framing of this Constitution, such as those maintained from the Magna Carta, were not lost nor limited by the Constitution.

Trial By Jury:

As previously noted, Clause 39 of the Magna Carta contains the assurance that”no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned… except by the lawful judgment of his peers.” The intent at the time was to induce the king to relinquish judicial authority to peers of the person on trial. Thus, while the Magna Carta didn’t contemplate the prosecution system that we have in the United States, it did serve as its inspiration. The colonists viewed the right to a jury trial as an essential liberty and a fundamental safeguard of liberty from arbitrary government. Thus the concept espoused in Clause 39 that”no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned… except by the lawful judgment of his peers” was incorporated into the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The Sixth Amendment provides that”In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against himto have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.” Thus, similar to Clause 39, the Sixth Amendment ensures a trial by a jury comprised of fellow citizens.

This idea of swift justice is also reflected in the Sixth Amendment in the assurance that”the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial.”

While the Sixth Amendment secured a right to a jury trial in criminal cases, it did not apply to civil cases. The Seventh Amendment, however, was created to ensure a jury trial in civil cases. The Seventh Amendment mandates that”in suits at common law where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.”

The rights sought by the barons in 1215, as defined in the Magna Carta, not only found their way into the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights, but these crucial rights can also be found in the jury instructions issued by Judge to jury in the United States. That is, these rights are seen in the terms presumption of innocence and burden of proof.

No Trial without credible witnesses

Clause 38 of the Magna Carta, afterwards re-numbered 29, provides that”No bailiff, for the future, will put any man to his law, upon his own simple affirmation, without credible witnesses created for the purpose.” Clause 38’s requirement that no man be put to trial without reliable witnesses found its way to the Sixth Amendment in the assurance that”the accused shall enjoy the right… to be confronted with the witnesses against him.” In our judicial system, however, it is for the jury to decide the credibility of a witness.

Cruel and Unusual Punishment:

During the reign of King John, there existed a concern regarding the severity of the punishment to be rendered. Thus Clause 20 of the Magna Carta was written to ensure that”A free-man shall not be fined for a small offence, but only according to the degree of the offence; and to get a great delinquency, according to the size of the delinquency, saving his contentment… and none of the aforesaid fines shall be assessed, but by the oath of honest men of the vicinage.” To make certain that punishments weren’t overly excessive, Clause 20 mandated that the punishment be consistent with the gravity of the offense. The same principle is expressed in our Eighth Amendment from the assurance that”Excessive bail shall not be required nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.”

The longest clause of the Magna Carta, Clause 61, called the security clause, was the most significant clause affecting King John in 1215. Clause 61 provided that a committee of 25 barons could meet at any time and overrule the will of the King, by force if necessary, if he defied the terms of this Charter, and they could grab his castles and possessions. As this was the first time that such a practice was forced upon a ruling monarch, Clause 61 was a severe challenge to King John’s authority. Not surprisingly, Clause 61 was omitted from all later reissues of the Magna Carta.

Clause 61 provides in part that”… because we have given all these things… we being desirous that these things should possess entire and unshaken stability for , give and grant to them the security underwritten; namely the Barons may elect twenty-five Barons of the kingdom, whom they please, who will with their whole power, observe, keep, and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties which we have given to them, and have confirmed by this our present charter… And if we will not have redresses… the twenty-five Barons… shall distress… us… from the taking of our castles, lands, and possessions…”

Throughout the time of the Tudors, the Magna Carta served as a basis for establishing the first Parliament to assist in enforcing the rights claimed by common law. Later, in Elizabethan times, the Magna Carta was used to establish the antiquity of Parliament.

The principal significance of Clause 61 is that it laid the framework for the basic form of government in both England and in the United States. Subsequently, the English governmental system of Monarch, Commons, and Lords provided the legal basis for our system of two houses of Congress and the Presidency. The framers of the Constitution were influenced by the inherent relationship between the Monarch, Commons and Lords in the British governmental system and it is from this system that the legal foundation for both houses of Congress and the Presidency, as well as the idea of checks and balances, was created. The legislative, executive and judicial branches of the government, along with the system of checks and balances, are established in the first few articles of the Constitution.

For the framers of the Constitution, the checks and balances that functioned between the three branches of government were a means to prevent any single branch from overreaching and exceeding its powers. Therefore, the Constitution and the Magna Carta were prepared with the same intent in mind. Both files limit government by requiring submission to the law and by requiring recognition of the rights of taxpayers.

The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.” Thus, the Tenth Amendment makes it clear that our national government possesses only those powers granted to it by the Constitution. The states, however, have all powers that the Constitution neither delegates to our national government nor prohibits the states from exercising; stated differently, all powers not expressly delegated to the national government nor denied to the states, remain with the states or the people.

Idea of a Supreme Law

The Magna Carta has also been credited with providing the basis for the notion of a higher law. In this regard, it’s regarded as a superior law such that even kings must be subject to the law, and any attempt to invalidate it need not be respected. The concept that the Magna Carta provided the basis for the idea of a higher law is embedded in Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution. Report VI, Paragraph 2 of the United States Constitution, known as the Supremacy Clause, provides that”this Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the jurisdiction of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.” Thus the Supremacy Clause mandates that the Constitution together with all treaties and all federal laws made in pursuance of this Constitution represents the”supreme law of the land” in the United States. The Supremacy Clause further mandates that all judges in all states are bound by this”supreme law of the land,” and that the state courts must refuse to uphold any state law that is contrary to the”supreme law of the land.” This concept of a supreme law, embedded in the supremacy clause, is enforced by the Supreme Court.

Judicial Review

Clauses 39 and 40, discussed above, also serve as a basis for the concept of judicial review. It’s through judicial review that our courts interpret the meaning and intent of legislation.